miércoles, 6 de febrero de 2013


[Pongo el borrador de un largo trabajo bibliográfico que tuve que dejar inconcluso. Los lectores que no se lleven con el inglés pueden simplemente ir a las referencias bibliográficas, pues su compilación es lo positivo aquí]

As it is the case of Ecuadorean poetry, prose from this Andean country can also be divided into common Latin American literary periods: Conquest, Colonial, 19th c., and Contemporary.  It may also be read in accordance with international writing styles —baroque, neoclassical, romantic, modernist, costumbrista, realist, and postmodern. The latter integrates minor genres as detective novel, science-fiction, and urban chronicles.  While names such as Eugenio Espejo, Juan Montalvo, Juan León Mera, and to a lesser extend colonial female writers such as Madre Antonia Lucía Maldonado, Gertrudis de San Ildefonso, or Catalina de Jesús María Herrera, may be familiar to the Latin American readers of pre-20th century literature, it has been generally accepted the idea that the so called Generación del 30 remains the most powerful phenomenon of Ecuadorian letters. With the backing of comments in its favor by national and international scholars, the Generación del 30 is a permanent topic of debates entertained by writers and artists. Its influence also affected the programs of education in Ecuadorian schools, which established it as the national canon. During the last ten years, it has been the source of discussions regarding nationality, racism, regionalism, centralist bureaucratization, ethnicity, gender diversity and social struggle. The predominant style of this generation was social realism. Its main writers were José de la Cuadra, Enrique Gil Gilbert, Demetrio Aguilera Malta, Joaquín Gallegos Lara, Angel Felicísimo Rojas, Alfredo Pareja, and Jorge Icaza. Pablo Palacio and Humberto Salvador were also members of this generation, but wrote in an experimental and psychological style, which kept them isolated from their comrades. Some critics also include later writers such as Adalberto Ortiz, and Pedro Jorge Vera.
The Generación del 30 literature appears in well known textbooks, histories and anthologies of Latin America, as Franco’s, and Anderson Imbert and Florit’s, but also in more recent introductions such as Kristal’s, Martin’s (141), and Williams. It formerly received irregular backing in and out of its country.  For instance, Ecuadorian critic Benjamín Carrión devoted a chapter to Pablo Palacio (1930) in an attempt to make available the most cosmopolitan of Ecuadorian writers of his time to the international reader. But others, like Hugo Barbagelata, in a book written in Paris during the Nazi occupation, included a chapter Humberto Salvador, and Fernando Chávez, two of the less known members of that generation. A clear, simple yet warmly written article by Lilo Liken provides balanced information on the social and literary context of Generación del 30.

Anderson-Imbert, Enrique, and Eugenio Florit. Literatura Hispanoamericana. Vol. 2. Holt           Rinehart and Winston, 1960.

Anderson-Imbert, Enrique. Spanish-American Literature. A History. Detroit: Wayne State UP,     1963.
Barbagelata, Hugo D. La novela y el cuento en Hispanoamérica. Montevideo, 1947.
Carrión, Benjamín. Mapa de América. Madrid: Sociedad española de Madrid, 1930.

Franco, Jean. An Introduction to Spanish-American Literature. London: Cambridge UP, 1975.

Kristal, Efraín, ed. The Cambridge Companion to The Latin American Novel.  Cambridge UP,     2005.
Linken, Lilo. “Literary Life in the Tropics.” The Antioch Review. Vol. 3, No. 4 (Winter 1943):      574-586.
Martin, Gerald. Journeys through the Labyrinth. Latin American Fiction in the Twentieth   Century. London: Verso, 1989.
Menton, Seymour. [1964] The Spanish American Short Story: A Critical Anthology. Los
Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, University of California, 1980.

Donoso Pareja, Miguel. Los grandes de la década del 30: estudio introductorio. Quito : El
Conejo, 1985.

Williams, Raymond Leslie. The Columbia Guide to the Latin American Novel since 1945. New     York: Columbia UP, 2007.
Wishnia, KJA. Twentieth-century Ecuadorian narrative: new readings in the context of the Americas. Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, 1999.
It took one member of the Generación del 30 to write in a more organic way about his peers to place them in a relevant position in Ecuadorian essay: Angel Felicísimo Rojas. In a book called La novela ecuatoriana, Rojas applies historical and generational methods to enhance a formal treatment to the new literature (Rodríguez-Albán, Johnson). Years later, Miguel Donoso, nephew of Alfredo Pareja, wrote the most important collection of short essay and meditations about Generación del 30. Donoso combines historical information, literary reception, and categories of Russian formalism to analyze its most representative works. To avoid further discussion about Pablo Palacio inclusion as a member (or not) of his generation, Donoso implies that any generation of writers includes all of them regardless of his/her predominant style or the critics’inclusion in it. Thus, he mentions Humberto Salvador but avoids Adalberto Ortiz. Equally important should be considered the prologues written by Jorge Enrique Adoum, and Raúl Vallejo, as well as the testimony by Alfredo Pareja.  
Adoum, Jorge Enrique. “Prólogo.” Narradores ecuatorianos del 30. Caracas: Biblioteca    Ayacucho, 1980: IX-LXI
Johnson, Harvey L. “La novela ecuatoriana by Angel F. Rojas.” Review. Hispania. Vol. 33, No.   1 (February 1950): 94-95.

Pareja, Alfredo. Los narradores de la generación del 30. El Grupo de Guayaquil. Discurso de      ingreso a la Academia de la Lengua. AFESE, No17, 1989. [http://revista            iberoamericana.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/Iberoamericana/article/viewFile/4480/4647]

Rodríguez-Albán, Martha. “Vigencia de la Novela ecuatoriana” de Angel F. Rojas”. Kipus. Vol.   25, I (2009): 151-164.
Rojas, Angel Felicísimo. [1948]. La novela ecuatoriana, 2d edition. Guayaquil: Ariel, 1970.
Vallejo, Raúl. Vallejo, Raúl. “Prólogo.” Un hombre muerto a puntapiés: y otros textos. Caracas:
Biblioteca Ayacucho, 2005: IX-LVII.

While some lately research on this author is on his theater, the material on his novels remains as more relevant. Despite this fact, with the exception of very ambitious analysis by Rabassa, Granizo de Valverde, Fama, Sacoto, and Bellini, not much criticism is available. Aguilera’s novels Don Goyo, Siete Lunas y Siete Serpientes, Isla Virgen and Canal Zone, and his early short stories included in the book Los que se van are often the focus of interest. There are also available reviews of his novels and interviews in which magical realism and personal data are recurrent.  His name also appears in articles of larger scope (Reid, Fama 1978).
Angulo, María-Elena. Magic Realism: Social Context and Discourse. New York: Garland, 1995.

Bellini,  Giusseppe . “El Señor Presidente y la temática de la dictadura en la nueva novela hispanoamericana.” Anuario de Estudios Centroamericanos. Universidad de Costa Rica,           No. 3 (1977): 27-55.
---        Magia e realtá nella narrativa di Demetrio Aguilera Malta. Milano: Cisalpino
Goliardica, 1972.
Carballo, Emmanuel. Protagonistas de la literatura hispanoamericana. México: Santillana,            2007.
Diez, Luis A. “The Apocalyptic Tropics of Aguilera Malta.” Latin American Literary Review,       Vol. 10, No. 20 (Spring 1982): 31-40.
Fama, Antonio. “Entrevista con Demetrio Aguilera-Malta.” Chasqui, Vol. 7, No. 3 (May 1978):   16-23.
---        Realismo mágico en la literatura de Aguilera Malta. Madrid: Playor, 1977.
Granizo de Valverde, María E. La narrativa de Aguilera malta, un aporte a lo real maravilloso.    Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura, 1979.
Rabassa, Clementine Christos. Demetrio Aguilera-Malta and Social Justice: The Tertiary Phase
of Epic Tradition in Latin American Literature. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP,

---        En torno a Aguilera Malta: temas épicos y negros. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura, 1981.

Reid, John T. “Literary Ecuador in 1943.” Hispania, Vol. 27, No. 3 (October 1944): 315-319.
Sacoto, Antonio. Catorce novelas claves de la literatura ecuatoriana. Cuenca: Universidad de      Cuenca, 1990.
---        La nueva novela ecuatoriana. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 1981.

Some of his stories have been translated into English, French and German. José de La Cuadra is still little known by the international reader. He is considered by some as the best writer of Grupo de Guayaquil (Gilard, Iduarte, Nichols, Robles). His polished style and technique, framed in social and historical contexts, can be seen in works such as Los Sangurimas and La Tigra. The former is an antecedent of magical realism. The latter is a step forward in the construction of the authoritarian female character of the tropics (Angulo, Carrión de Fierro). La Tigra has been adapted in a polemical film by Jaime Luzuriaga (Handelsman 1997). De la Cuadra is also the author of an essay in which he explains and elaborates on the montuvio, the countryside man of Coastal Ecuador (1937).  At the present, his work is subject of new publications and readings (De la Cuadra 2008, Gómez, Jackson), including some undergraduate papers (Rodríguez-Arenas 97-111) that apply post-modern theory. Humberto Robles remains the most devoted and specialized scholar on José de la Cuadra.
Angulo, María Elena. Magic realism: social context and discourse. New York: Garland: 1995.
Barrett, Linton Lomas. “The Cultural Scene in Ecuador: 1951” Hispania  Vol. 35, No. 3 (August
1952): 267-273.
Carrión de Fierro, Fanny Natalia. José de la Cuadra, precursor del realismo mágico          hispanoamericano. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1993.
De la Cuadra, José. El montuvio ecuatoriano. (ensayo de presentación). Buenos Aires: Imán,         1937.  
--- Noir Équateur. Denis Amutio, translator. Talence, France: L'arbre vengeur. 2008.
Crooks, Esther J. “Contemporary Ecuador in the Novel and Short Story”. Hispania. Vol. 23, No.
1 (February1940): 85-88.

Gilard, Jacques. Review of “Testimonio y tendencia mítica en la obra de José de la Cuadra by
Humberto E. Robles”. Cahiers du monde hispanique et luso-brésilien. No. 30 (1978): 212-214.

Gómez Iturralde, José Antonio, ed. Historia, Sociedad y Literatura en José de la cuadra. En el
Centenario de su nacimiento (Septiembre 3, 1903). Guayaquil: Archivo Histórico del
Guayas, 2004.

Handelsman, Michael. “Trapped between Civilization and Barbarism: Jose de la Cuadra's ‘The

Iduarte, Andrés Iduarte. Review of “Los Sangurimas” by José de la Cuadra.” Revista Hispánica
Moderna. Año 7, No. ½ (January-April 1941): 85.

Jackson, Richard L. “Research on Black Themes in Spanish American Literature: A           Bibliographic Guide to Recent Trends.” Latin American Research Review. Vol. 12, No. 1
(1977): 87-103.

Lindstrom, Naomi. Review of “Testimonio y tendencia mítica en la obra de José de la Cuadra by
Humberto E. Robles.” Hispania. Vol. 61, No. 2 (May 1978): 395.

Nichols, Madaline W. Review of Guásinton by José de la Cuadra. Books Abroad. Vol. 14, No. 4  (Fall 1940): 427.

Rodríguez-Arenas, Flor María, ed. Lecturas críticas de textos hispánicos. Pueblo: U of Southern
Colorado, 1998.

Robles, Humberto E. El montuvio ecuatoriano: ensayo de presentación. Humberto E Robles,        Introducción. Quito: Libresa-Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, 1996.

--- “Génesis y vigencia de Los Sangurimas.” Guaraguao. Año 12, No. 27 (Spring 2008): 55-61.

--- José de la Cuadra: tradición y ruptura. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 2003.

--- Testimonio y tendencia mítica en la obra de José de la Cuadra. Colección: Cuadernos de la
Casa, 35. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1976.
Rodríguez-Arenas, Flor María. Lecturas críticas de textos hispánicos. Pueblo: University of           Southern Colorado, 1998.
Author of Huasipungo, Icaza is one of the founders of novela indigenista, which captured the attention of readers of his time due to his explicit denouncing of exploitation and victimization of the Andean peasant. He is also the author of plays and the satirical novel El chulla Romero y Flores. Scholarship has largely focused on his prose. While written in two very different periods, Garro’s and Sacoto’s analysis offer balanced introductions to Icaza’s work. Dulsey and Ordóñez explore the theatrical structure of his novels, and Borras elaborates on the concept of “otherness”. Garcia (2009) offers a “reading in the margins” of Huasipungo
Borras, Gérard. “Entre kenas et pututus : la représentation de « l'autre » dans la littérature des
pays andins.” Caravelle (1988-) , No. 76/77 (December 2001): 527-536.

Cevallos, Santiago. Las estéticas de Jorge Icaza y Pablo Palacio bajo el signo de lo barroco y lo   cinematográfico. Quito: ABYA YALA ; Corporación Editora Nacional; Universidad            Andina Simón Bolívar, 2010
Corrales, Manuel. “Las raices del relato indigenista ecuatoriano.” Revista de Crítica Literaria
Latinoamericana. Año 4, No. 7/8 (1978): 39-52

Crooks, Esther J. “Contemporary Ecuador in the Novel and Short Story.” Hispania. Vol. 23, No.
1 (February 1940): 85-88.

Cueva, Agustín. “En pos de la historicidad perdida (Contribución al debate sobre la literatura
indigenista del Ecuador).” Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana. Año 4, No. 7/8
(1978): 23-38.

Dulsey, Bernard. “Icaza sobre Icaza.” The Modern Language Journal , Vol. 54, No. 4 (April
1970): 233-245.

---        “Jorge Icaza and His Ecuador.” Hispania. Vol. 44, No. 1 (March 1961): 99-102.

García, Antonio. “Sociología de la novela indigenista en el Ecuador: Estructura social de la
novelística de Jorge Icaza.” Revista Mexicana de Sociología , Vol. 30, No. 4 (October-      December 1968): 901-932.

García, G.V. “Maíz, papas y carroña: La "identidad" alimenticia del "indio" de “Huasipungo”.      Neophilologus, 92(1) (2009): 35-48 [doi:10.1007/s11061-007-9058-8].
Garro, J. Eugenio. “A través de las novelas de Jorge Icaza.” Revista Hispánica Moderna. Año       12, No. 3/4 (July-October 1946): 217-238.
---        “Jorge Icaza: Vida y obra.” Revista Hispánica Moderna , Año 13, No. 3/4 (July-October
1947): 193-234.

Haidar, Julieta and Hilda Tisoc. “El discurso de la identidad en la narrativa andina y
mesoamericana.” Boletín de Antropología Americana. No. 28 (December 1993): 17-30.

Lorente Medina, Antonio. La narrativa menor de Jorge Icaza. Valladolid: Universidad de
Valladolid, 1980.

Nina, Fernando. La expresión metaperiférica: narrativa ecuatoriana del siglo XX : José de la
Cuadra, Jorge Icaza, Pablo Palacio. Madrid: Iberoamericana; Frankfurt am Main:
Vervuer, 2011.
Norman, James Earl. Ortiz' Juyungo and Icaza's Huasipungo; A Comparative Study of Narrative   and Theme. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Florida State University, 1983.
Ojeda, Enrique. Elementos picarescos en la novela "El Chulla Romero y Flores" de Jorge Icaza.
Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española, 1979.

Ordóñez Andrade. Huasipungo; versión teatral de la novela de Jorge Icaza. Quito: Casa de la      Cultura, 1970.
Ponce, Néstor, Valeria Añón. Ecrire la domination en Amérique latine: Balún-Canán [de]            Rosario Castellanos, Los rios profundos [de] José Maria Arguedas, El chulla romero y       flores [de] Jorge Icaza. Paris: Editions du Temps, 2004.
Sacoto, Antonio. Indianismo, indigenismo y neoindigenismo en la novela ecuatoriana. Quito:        Augusto Zúñiga Yánez Gemagrafic, 2006.
---        “Jorge Icaza: El indigenismo ecuatoriano.” Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana.
Año 17, No. 33 (1991): 253-259.

Suárez, Modesta. “El Chulla Romero y Flores: Icaza ou l'art de la mise en scène.” Caravelle
(1988-) No. 85 (December 2005): 223-236.

 Vetrano, Anthony J. La problemática psico-social y su correlación lingüística en las novelas de
Jorge Icaza. Miami, Florida: Ediciones Universal, 1974.

In a short note published in 1931, the author writes “[Pablo Palacio] is not so incoherent –he never is when compared to Joyce- but is nevertheless confusing to the reader not accustomed to this genre- which will be understood fifty years from now” (Sánchez 177). Indeed, ignored or questioned by his own peers, who were not interested in his exploratory psychological depths, nor in his narrative experiments, Pablo Palacio has became the main topic of literary research in Ecuador. The first relevant essays on Palacio by Latin American critics as Cornejo Polar or Jorge Rufinelli are included in Miguel Donoso’s compilaton. Wilfrido Corral has produced an important critical edition of Palacio’s complete works that includes an introduction of one-hundred pages, and more than fifteen essays and notes by different authors.

Corral, Wilfrido, ed. Pablo Palacio. Obras Completas. Madrid: ALLCA XX, 2000.

---        Un cuento rescatado de Pablo Palacio, o la manía de adelantarse.” Guaraguao. Año 5, No.13 (Winter 2001): 140-142.
Donoso Pareja, Miguel. Recopilación de textos sobre Pablo Palacio. Serie Valoración Múltiple.
Habana: casa de las América, 1987.

Handelsman, Michael. “Joaquín Gallegos Lara y el ‘Síndrome de Falcón’: literatura, mestizaje e
interculturalidad en el Ecuador”. Kipus. No 25. I( 2009): 165-181.

---        Una doble y única lectura de "Una doble y única mujer" de Pablo Palacio.” Chasqui.

---        “Heterosexualidad y diferencias generacionales en la literatura ecuatoriana.” Revista          Iberoamericana. No 220 (Julio-Septiembre 2007): 595-613.

Robles, Humberto E. “Pablo Palacio: el anhelo insatisfecho.” Guaraguao. Año 12, No. 27
(Spring 2008): 62-78.

---        “Paradigmas ecuatorianos (1920-1930): discordias, teorías, función de la literatura y
práctica narrativa. Guaraguao. Año 14, No 33 (2010): 17-30.

Sánchez, F. “Pablo Palacio. Un hombre muerto a puntapiés” and “Débora.” Books Abroad. Vol.
5, No 2 (April 1931): 177.

The works by Enrique Gil, Alfredo Pareja, Joaquín Gallegos Lara, and Angel F. Rojas have not been well searched out of Ecuador. With a very few exception (Fernández, Molina, Schwartz) the amount of criticism is limited to reviews, general introductions, and bibliographical indexes around the publication years. More difficult yet is to find at the present interest on them, maybe with the exception of Aguilera’s plays. Therefore, the post-modern reader or scholar could embark in a pioneering exploration on themes such as sexuality, race, territoriality, gender, and regional speech in any of these writers, which will provide a more dynamic understanding of Ecuadorian literature and cultures. With the exception of Afro-Ecuadorian writer Adalberto Ortiz, whose novel Juyungo was published in 1943, Pedro Jorge Vera and Humberto Salvador’s works still wait to be re-discovered.


Most of the material written about Enrique Gil is general and introductory, at the most. Sometimes, they make reference to his awarded novel Nuestro Pan, or his visit to the United States and his friendship with American writers of his time, with emphasis on his political affiliation (Schwartz).
Donoso Pareja, Miguel. Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco: leyenda y realidad de un hombre de
reflexión. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 2010.

Fernández, Sergio. Cinco escritores hispanoamericanos. México: UNAM, 1958.
Linke, Lilo. “Literary Life in the Tropics.” The Antioch Review. Vol. 3, No. 4, (Winter 1943):       574-586.
Molina, Gilberto. Enrique Gil Gilbert: Notas para un ensayo. Ambato: Santa Marianita, 1974.

Schwartz, Kessel. “Alfredo Pareja y Diez Canseco, Social Novelist.” Hispania, Vol. 42, No. 2      (May 1959): 220-228.
---        Some Aspects of the Contemporary Novel of Ecuador. Hispania , Vol. 38, No. 3   (September 1955): 294-298.

Not surprisingly, there is almost nothing published (and available to the reader) about Joaquin Gallegos Lara as he was the most radical and dogmatic writer of his generation. Physically handicapped, it is only during the last ten years that, in Ecuador, his political ideas have become reason of debate for some writers when revisiting the historical context of his famous novel Las cruces sobre el agua, and the Generación del 30.

Gallegos Lara, Joaquín. Páginas olvidadas de Joaquín Gallegos Lara,  Alejandro Guerra
Cáceres, ed. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987.

Handelsman, Michael. “Joaquín Gallegos Lara y ‘El síndrome de Falcón: literatura, mestizaje e     interculturalidad en Ecuador.” Kipus. 21. I (2009): 165-181.

Valencia, Leonardo. El síndrome de Falcón. Quito: Paradiso, 2008.